Building with link time optimization requires cooperation from the system linker. LTO support on Linux systems requires that you use the gold linker which supports LTO via plugins. This is the same mechanism used by the GCC LTO project.
The LLVM gold plugin implements the gold plugin interface on top of libLTO. The same plugin can also be used by other tools such as ar and nm.
You need to have gold with plugin support and build the LLVMgold plugin. Check whether you have gold running /usr/bin/ld -v. It will report “GNU gold” or else “GNU ld” if not. If you have gold, check for plugin support by running /usr/bin/ld -plugin. If it complains “missing argument” then you have plugin support. If not, such as an “unknown option” error then you will either need to build gold or install a version with plugin support.
Download, configure and build gold with plugin support:
$ git clone --depth 1 git://sourceware.org/git/binutils-gdb.git binutils $ mkdir build $ cd build $ ../binutils/configure --enable-gold --enable-plugins --disable-werror $ make all-gold
That should leave you with build/gold/ld-new which supports the -plugin option. Running make will additionally build build/binutils/ar and nm-new binaries supporting plugins.
Build the LLVMgold plugin. If building with autotools, run configure with --with-binutils-include=/path/to/binutils/include and run make. If building with CMake, run cmake with -DLLVM_BINUTILS_INCDIR=/path/to/binutils/include. The correct include path will contain the file plugin-api.h.
The linker takes a -plugin option that points to the path of the plugin .so file. To find out what link command gcc would run in a given situation, run gcc -v [...] and look for the line where it runs collect2. Replace that with ld-new -plugin /path/to/LLVMgold.so to test it out. Once you’re ready to switch to using gold, backup your existing /usr/bin/ld then replace it with ld-new.
You should produce bitcode files from clang with the option -flto. This flag will also cause clang to look for the gold plugin in the lib directory under its prefix and pass the -plugin option to ld. It will not look for an alternate linker, which is why you need gold to be the installed system linker in your path.
ar and nm also accept the -plugin option and it’s possible to to install LLVMgold.so to /usr/lib/bfd-plugins for a seamless setup. If you built your own gold, be sure to install the ar and nm-new you built to /usr/bin.
Once your system ld, ar, and nm all support LLVM bitcode, everything is in place for an easy to use LTO build of autotooled projects:
Follow the instructions on how to build LLVMgold.so.
Install the newly built binutils to $PREFIX
Copy Release/lib/LLVMgold.so to $PREFIX/lib/bfd-plugins/
Set environment variables ($PREFIX is where you installed clang and binutils):
export CC="$PREFIX/bin/clang -flto" export CXX="$PREFIX/bin/clang++ -flto" export AR="$PREFIX/bin/ar" export NM="$PREFIX/bin/nm" export RANLIB=/bin/true #ranlib is not needed, and doesn't support .bc files in .a
Or you can just set your path:
export PATH="$PREFIX/bin:$PATH" export CC="clang -flto" export CXX="clang++ -flto" export RANLIB=/bin/true
Configure and build the project as usual:
% ./configure && make && make check
The environment variable settings may work for non-autotooled projects too, but you may need to set the LD environment variable as well.
Gold is licensed under the GPLv3. LLVMgold uses the interface file plugin-api.h from gold which means that the resulting LLVMgold.so binary is also GPLv3. This can still be used to link non-GPLv3 programs just as much as gold could without the plugin.