Segmented Stacks in LLVM¶
Segmented stack allows stack space to be allocated incrementally than as a
monolithic chunk (of some worst case size) at thread initialization. This is
done by allocating stack blocks (henceforth called stacklets) and linking them
into a doubly linked list. The function prologue is responsible for checking if
the current stacklet has enough space for the function to execute; and if not,
call into the libgcc runtime to allocate more stack space. Segmented stacks are
enabled with the
"split-stack" attribute on LLVM functions.
The runtime functionality is already there in libgcc.
As mentioned above, the function prologue checks if the current stacklet has
enough space. The current approach is to use a slot in the TCB to store the
current stack limit (minus the amount of space needed to allocate a new block) -
this slot’s offset is again dictated by
libgcc. The generated
assembly looks like this on x86-64:
leaq -8(%rsp), %r10 cmpq %fs:112, %r10 jg .LBB0_2 # More stack space needs to be allocated movabsq $8, %r10 # The amount of space needed movabsq $0, %r11 # The total size of arguments passed on stack callq __morestack ret # The reason for this extra return is explained below .LBB0_2: # Usual prologue continues here
The size of function arguments on the stack needs to be passed to
__morestack (this function is implemented in
libgcc) since that number
of bytes has to be copied from the previous stacklet to the current one. This is
so that SP (and FP) relative addressing of function arguments work as expected.
ret is needed to have the function which made a call to
__morestack return correctly.
__morestack, instead of returning, calls
.LBB0_2. This is possible since both, the size of the
instruction and the PC of call to
__morestack are known. When the function
body returns, control is transferred back to
then de-allocates the new stacklet, restores the correct SP value, and does a
second return, which returns control to the correct caller.
The section on allocating stacklets automatically assumes that every stack
frame will be of fixed size. However, LLVM allows the use of the
intrinsic to allocate dynamically sized blocks of memory on the stack. When
faced with such a variable-sized alloca, code is generated to:
- Check if the current stacklet has enough space. If yes, just bump the SP, like in the normal case.
- If not, generate a call to
libgcc, which allocates the memory from the heap.
The memory allocated from the heap is linked into a list in the current stacklet, and freed along with the same. This prevents a memory leak.