LLVM GitHub User Guide

Introduction

The LLVM Project uses GitHub for Source Code, Releases, Issue Tracking., and Code Reviews.

This page describes how the LLVM Project users and developers can participate in the project using GitHub.

Branches

It is possible to create branches that starts with users/<username>/, however this is intended to be able to support “stacked” pull-request. Do not create any branches in the llvm/llvm-project repository otherwise, please use a fork (see below). User branches that aren’t associated with a pull-request will be deleted.

Pull Requests

The LLVM project is using GitHub Pull Requests for Code Reviews. This document describes the typical workflow of creating a Pull Request and getting it reviewed and accepted. This is meant as an overview of the GitHub workflow, for complete documentation refer to GitHub’s documentation.

Note

If you are using a Pull Request for purposes other than review (eg: precommit CI results, convenient web-based reverts, etc) skip-precommit-approval<https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/labels?q=skip-precommit-approval> label to the PR.

GitHub Tools

You can interact with GitHub in several ways: via git command line tools, the web browser, GitHub Desktop, or the GitHub CLI. This guide will cover the git command line tools and the GitHub CLI. The GitHub CLI (gh) will be most like the arc workflow and recommended.

Creating Pull Requests

Keep in mind that when creating a pull request, it should generally only contain one self-contained commit initially. This makes it easier for reviewers to understand the introduced changes and provide feedback. It also helps maintain a clear and organized commit history for the project. If you have multiple changes you want to introduce, it’s recommended to create separate pull requests for each change.

Create a local branch per commit you want to submit and then push that branch to your fork of the llvm-project and create a pull request from the fork. As GitHub uses the first line of the commit message truncated to 72 characters as the pull request title, you may have to edit to reword or to undo this truncation.

Creating Pull Requests with GitHub CLI

With the CLI it’s enough to create the branch locally and then run:

gh pr create

When prompted select to create and use your own fork and follow the instructions to add more information needed.

Note

When you let the GitHub CLI create a fork of llvm-project to your user, it will change the git “remotes” so that “origin” points to your fork and “upstream” points to the main llvm-project repository.

Updating Pull Requests

In order to update your pull request, the only thing you need to do is to push your new commits to the branch in your fork. That will automatically update the pull request.

When updating a pull request, you should push additional “fix up” commits to your branch instead of force pushing. This makes it easier for GitHub to track the context of previous review comments. Consider using the built-in support for fixups in git.

If you do this, you must squash and merge before landing the PR and you must use the pull request title and description as the commit message. You can do this manually with an interactive git rebase or with GitHub’s built-in tool. See the section about landing your fix below.

When pushing to your branch, make sure you push to the correct fork. Check your remotes with:

git remote -v

And make sure you push to the remote that’s pointing to your fork.

Rebasing Pull Requests and Force Pushes

In general, you should avoid rebasing a Pull Request and force pushing to the branch that’s the root of the Pull Request during the review. This action will make the context of the old changes and comments harder to find and read.

Sometimes, a rebase might be needed to update your branch with a fix for a test or in some dependent code.

After your PR is reviewed and accepted, you want to rebase your branch to ensure you won’t encounter merge conflicts when landing the PR.

Landing your change

When your PR has been accepted you can use the web interface to land your change. If you have created multiple commits to address feedback at this point you need to consolidate those commits into one commit. There are two different ways to do this:

Interactive rebase with fixup’s. This is the recommended method since you can control the final commit message and inspect that the final commit looks as you expect. When your local state is correct, remember to force-push to your branch and press the merge button afterwards.

Use the button Squash and merge in GitHub’s web interface, if you do this remember to review the commit message when prompted.

Afterwards you can select the option Delete branch to delete the branch from your fork.

You can also merge via the CLI by switching to your branch locally and run:

gh pr merge --squash --delete-branch

If you observe an error message from the above informing you that your pull request is not mergeable, then that is likely because upstream has been modified since your pull request was authored in a way that now results in a merge conflict. You must first resolve this merge conflict in order to merge your pull request. In order to do that:

git fetch upstream
git rebase upstream/main

Then fix the source files causing merge conflicts and make sure to rebuild and retest the result. Then:

git add <files with resolved merge conflicts>
git rebase --continue

Finally, you’ll need to force push to your branch one more time before you can merge:

git push -f
gh pr merge --squash --delete-branch

This force push may ask if you intend to push hundreds, or potentially thousands of patches (depending on how long it’s been since your pull request was initially authored vs. when you intended to merge it). Since you’re pushing to a branch in your fork, this is ok and expected. Github’s UI for the pull request will understand that you’re rebasing just your patches, and display this result correctly with a note that a force push did occur.

Problems After Landing Your Change

Even though your PR passed the pre-commit checks and is approved by reviewers, it may cause problems for some configurations after it lands. You will be notified if this happens and the community is ready to help you fix the problems.

This process is described in detail here.

Checking out another PR locally

Sometimes you want to review another person’s PR on your local machine to run tests or inspect code in your preferred editor. This is easily done with the CLI:

gh pr checkout <PR Number>

This is also possible with the web interface and the normal git command line tools, but the process is a bit more complicated. See GitHub’s documentation on the topic.

Example Pull Request with GitHub CLI

Here is an example for creating a Pull Request with the GitHub CLI:

# Clone the repo
gh repo clone llvm/llvm-project

# Switch to the repo and create a new branch
cd llvm-project
git switch -c my_change

# Create your changes
$EDITOR file.cpp

# Don't forget clang-format
git clang-format

# and don't forget running your tests
ninja check-llvm

# Commit, use a good commit message
git commit file.cpp

# Create the PR, select to use your own fork when prompted.
# If you don't have a fork, gh will create one for you.
gh pr create

# If you get any review comments, come back to the branch and
# adjust them.
git switch my_change
$EDITOR file.cpp

# Commit your changes
git commit file.cpp -m "Code Review adjustments"

# Format changes
git clang-format HEAD~

# Recommit if any formatting changes
git commit -a --amend

# Push your changes to your fork branch, be mindful of
# your remotes here, if you don't remember what points to your
# fork, use git remote -v to see. Usually origin points to your
# fork and upstream to llvm/llvm-project
git push origin my_change

Before merging the PR, it is recommended that you rebase locally and re-run test checks:

# Add upstream as a remote (if you don't have it already)
git remote add upstream https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project.git

# Make sure you have all the latest changes
git fetch upstream && git rebase -i upstream/main

# Make sure tests pass with latest changes and your change
ninja check

# Push the rebased changes to your fork.
git push origin my_change -f

# Now merge it
gh pr merge --squash --delete-branch

See more in-depth information about how to contribute in the following documentation:

Example Pull Request with git

Instead of using the GitHub CLI to create a PR, you can push your code to a remote branch on your fork and create the PR to upstream using the GitHub web interface.

Here is an example of making a PR using git and the GitHub web interface:

First follow the instructions to [fork the repository](https://docs.github.com/en/get-started/quickstart/fork-a-repo?tool=webui#forking-a-repository).

Next follow the instructions to [clone your forked repository](https://docs.github.com/en/get-started/quickstart/fork-a-repo?tool=webui#cloning-your-forked-repository).

Once you’ve cloned your forked repository,

# Switch to the forked repo
cd llvm-project

# Create a new branch
git switch -c my_change

# Create your changes
$EDITOR file.cpp

# Don't forget clang-format
git clang-format

# and don't forget running your tests
ninja check-llvm

# Commit, use a good commit message
git commit file.cpp

# Push your changes to your fork branch, be mindful of
# your remotes here, if you don't remember what points to your
# fork, use git remote -v to see. Usually origin points to your
# fork and upstream to llvm/llvm-project
git push origin my_change

Navigate to the URL printed to the console from the git push command in the last step. Create a pull request from your branch to llvm::main.

# If you get any review comments, come back to the branch and
# adjust them.
git switch my_change
$EDITOR file.cpp

# Commit your changes
git commit file.cpp -m "Code Review adjustments"

# Format changes
git clang-format HEAD~

# Recommit if any formatting changes
git commit -a --amend

# Re-run tests and make sure nothing broke.
ninja check

# Push your changes to your fork branch, be mindful of
# your remotes here, if you don't remember what points to your
# fork, use git remote -v to see. Usually origin points to your
# fork and upstream to llvm/llvm-project
git push origin my_change

Before merging the PR, it is recommended that you rebase locally and re-run test checks:

# Add upstream as a remote (if you don't have it already)
git remote add upstream https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project.git

# Make sure you have all the latest changes
git fetch upstream && git rebase -i upstream/main

# Make sure tests pass with latest changes and your change
ninja check

# Push the rebased changes to your fork.
git push origin my_change -f

Once your PR is approved, rebased, and tests are passing, click Squash and Merge on your PR in the GitHub web interface.

See more in-depth information about how to contribute in the following documentation:

Releases

Backporting Fixes to the Release Branches

You can use special comments on issues to make backport requests for the release branches. This is done by making a comment containing the following command on any issue that has been added to one of the “X.Y.Z Release” milestones.

/cherry-pick <commit> <commit> <...>

This command takes one or more git commit hashes as arguments and will attempt to cherry-pick the commit(s) to the release branch. If the commit(s) fail to apply cleanly, then a comment with a link to the failing job will be added to the issue. If the commit(s) do apply cleanly, then a pull request will be created with the specified commits.

If a commit you want to backport does not apply cleanly, you may resolve the conflicts locally and then create a pull request against the release branch. Just make sure to add the release milestone to the pull request.